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Your Position: Home > Insights > PK/ADA Assay - The Role of Anti-Idiotypic Antibody
PK/ADA Assay - The Role of Anti-Idiotypic Antibody
Release time: 2021-09-26 Source: ACROBiosystems Read: 1200

Since the 1980s, therapeutic protein drugs (such as proteins, monoclonal antibodies, bispecific antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, etc.) are extensively used in the treatment of tumor, HIV and other diseases. This has contributed in the development of the pharmaceutical industry and human health.

Pharmacokinetic and immunogenicity research run through the entire life cycle of drug development. More attention has been paid in the research of therapeutic protein drugs, which has become the consensus of the drug administration authorities and medical research. The establishment of non-clinical analysis and evaluation methods can provide early guidance for clinical research. It helps to improve the safety and efficacy of drugs. The FDA, NMPA and other regulatory agencies require that the drug's effectiveness and safety must be demonstrated in animals before it enters the clinic. Both preclinical and clinical studies need to study the PK of the drug. Meanwhile, the FDA recommends that the immunogenicity testing is best performed in the IND Phase and clinical phase I. Therefore, the establishment of a good PK/ADA assay is extremely important for the preclinical, clinical analysis and evaluation of drugs.

Pharmacokinetics (PK Assay)

Pharmacokinetic (PK) principles integrate drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in organisms. Moreover, changes in blood drug concentration over time can be explain with the help of mathematical principles and methods. The blood drug concentration-time curve, refers to the dynamic process of the blood drug concentration changing with time, reflecting the metabolism of the drug in the body. Since blood is the medium for the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion of drugs and their metabolites in the body. The drugs concentration in various body fluids and tissues maintains a certain proportional relationship with the drug concentration in the blood. So the change of drug concentration in blood is most important. It is the most used sample.


Fig 1. Blood drug concentration-time curve

In pharmacokinetic studies, anti-idiotypic antibodies can specifically identify the unique position of biological drugs and are indispensable detection reagents for PK research. They can be used to detect the content of antibody drugs in animal or human serum. PK research plays an important role in clinical safety, efficacy, analysis of drug interactions, guiding rational drug use, and improving drug dosage forms.

Anti-Drug Antibody (ADA Assay)

Immunogenicity can be defined as the ability of a drug and/or its metabolites to induce an immune response to itself or related proteins or immune-related events. Immunogenicity has a wide range of effects. Some unexpected immune reactions may lead to neutralize biological activity of drugs or cross immune reactions. This may lead to allergic reactions and cytokine release syndromes. From the perspective of clinical manifestations, the immunogenicity of the drug may not have a significant impact on patients, and it may also seriously affect the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and effectiveness of the drugs.


Table 1. Immunogenic clinical issues

Clinical issuesClinical results
SafetyAllergic reaction
Autoimmune deficiency
EffectivenessIncrease or decrease drug efficacy
Change the half-life
Change the biological distribution
Pharmacokinetics (PK)Change PK,PD
OtherProduce antibodies, but no corresponding effect


Based on the effectiveness and safety hazards of the drugs immunogenicity, the evaluation and monitoring of immunogenicity is an indispensable research stage in the drug development process. Immunogenicity research mainly focuses on the detection and characterization of ADA.

Anti-Idiotypic Antibody (Anti-Drug Antibody)

Usually, anti-drug antibody is not a secondary antibody that recognizes the constant region of an antibody. An anti-antibody that is against a specific epitope group on the variable region of the antibody molecule called anti-idiotypic antibody.

Antigen blocking type(Neutralizing)
Paratope specific
Block antigen-antibody binding
Detection of free antibody drugs
Detection of neutralizing antibodies
Antigen non-blocking type (Non-neutralizing)
Paratope non-specific
Not block antigen-antibody binding
Detection of total antibody drugs (free, semi-bound, bound)
Drug target compound type
Specific binding drug target complex
Not block antigen- antibody binding
Specific detection of bound antibody drugs

Figure 2. Types of anti-idiotypic antibodies

All biological agents may induce a certain degree of ADA. These antibodies may be harmless, may reduce the efficacy and half-life of the drug, and even can be life-threatening.

Anti-Idiotypic Antibody Application

Anti-idiotypic antibodies are widely used in drug development and an important reference for immunogenicity analysis. It can also specifically detect the level of antibody drugs in the body. It is an important reagent for pharmacokinetics (PK) research.

Table 2. Anti-idiotypic antibody application

ApplicationADA assayPK assay
Antibody speciesRabbitMouse
Antibody typePolyclonal antibodyMonoclonal antibody
Antibody actionPositive referenceNeutralizing antibody: free drug
Non-neutralizing antibody: total drug
Sensitivity100 ng/mLRelated to dosage

Table 3. Selective development of anti-idiotypic antibodies for different drugs

 PK assayADA assay
Biosimilar drugsFor the variable region of the drug, development or the original ADA productFor the variable region of the drug, development or the original ADA product
Monoclonal antibodyDevelop single or one pair anti-idiotypic antibody against the variable region of the drugDevelop a polyclonal antibody against the variable region of the drug
Bispecific antibodyDevelop one pair anti-idiotypic antibody against the variable regions of the two parent antibodiesDevelop a polyclonal antibody against the full-length antibody
Antibody-Drug Conjugate,ADCDevelop an anti-idiotypic antibody against the variable region of the drug and the small molecule respectivelyDevelop a polyclonal antibody against the entire ADC
Nanobody/SCFVDevelop single or one pair anti-idiotypic antibody against the variable region of the whole antibodyDevelop a polyclonal antibody against the variable region of the whole antibody
CAR-TFor SCFV, Cell-Base AssayFor SCFV, Cell-Base Assay/ELISA

ACROBiosystems provides anti-idiotypic antibody development service to help PK/ADA assay of macromolecular drugs

Focusing on protein technology, products, and services in the development of biological drugs, ACROBiosystems is committed to providing target antigens, other key reagents and related services required in the development of targeted therapeutic drugs. It can provide you with a series of high affinity, specificity, sensitivity anti-idiotypic antibody and PK plasma concentration quantitative detection kit. Meanwhile, to meet the diverse needs of customers, we can also provide one-stop services from antigen preparation to monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies, polyclonal anti-idiotype antibodies, pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity testing kit development.


TypeAnti-ID mouse monoclonal antibodyAnti-ID rabbit polyclonal antibody
Scope of applicationPK assayADA assay
Preparation cycleM4-6 months10-14 weeks
AdvantageSingle epitope
Good specificity
Good stability between batches
Can simulate the real situation in blood samples
Relatively short preparation cycle
Low cost
General detection method1.jpg1.jpg

Our advantage


Fast response, one-on-one service of the project team, real-time follow-up of the experiment progress


Provide key reagents for PK/ADA analysis for a variety of drugs (monoclonal antibody, bispecific antibody, ADC, CAR-T)


Provide one-stop service from antigen preparation to monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies, polyclonal anti-idiotype antibodies, PK and immunogenicity test kit developments


Ensure delivery of PK/ADA test kits with sensitivity that meets regulatory requirements


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