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Proteins for Neuroscience

Proteins for Neuroscience
Background
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), various brain-related diseases including degenerative, functional, and psychiatric disorders, have become a major public health concern. Their impact on social and economic outcomes is even great than cardiovascular diseases and cancers. According to the World Alzheimer Report, in 2015, there were 46,800,000 Alzheimer's patients worldwide, with an additional 9,900,000 new cases globally. This is equivalent to one new case every three seconds. With case numbers expected to is expected to grow to 74,700,000 by 2030 and to 130,000,000 by 2050.
The diagnosis and intervention of major brain-related diseases are at the forefront of brain research. This situation actively inspires to promote the development of the drug industry and new bio-engineering companies. Improving the management of brain-related disease is thus expected to play an important part in improving the health and well-being of modern society.
As a leading manufacturer of recombinant proteins and other critical reagents for support in developing target therapeutics, vaccines, and diagnostics, ACROBiosystems employs an application-oriented development strategy, with a particular focus on product design, quality control, and solution-based support.
Aneuro is a new product line of ACRO that focuses and reflects dedicated efforts in neuroscience research. We aim to promote and facilitate neuroscience research by providing high-quality protein products and valuable new ideas.
Products for Therapeutic Research
Alzheimer′s disease, AD
Alzheimer′s disease (AD)is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects the central neuron system. Specific symptoms include impairments in cognitive functions such as memory and changes in behavior. Currently, there is no cure for AD with existing treatments mainly focusing on restoring the cognitive functions and slowing down the disease progression. At present, the exact mechanism of AD pathogenesis is still under debate, with existing hypotheses including the β-amyloid waterfall theory, the Tau protein theory, and the neurovascular hypothesis.
Schematic presentation of the APP proteolytic processes
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1552526016000790
Schematic presentation of the APP proteolytic processes
Featured ProductsAPP/A betaAPOEACHEBACE1BCHEGSK-3betaTauTREM2
Parkinson disease (PD)
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is most commonly diagnosed in middle-aged and elderly people. The typical clinical symptoms involve bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and poor posture at the late stage of the disease. PD brain shows loss of pigment and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and is associated with the emergence of Lewis bodies and the increase of glial. Consequently, an imbalance between striatum inhibitory transmitter dopamine and excitatory transmitter acetylcholine occurs.
Multiple pathways that influence the onset of PD
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6905381/
Multiple pathways that influence the onset of PD
Featured ProductsAlpha-SynucleinDDCMAOAMAOBLRRK2
Huntington disease (HD)
Huntington’s disease (HD), is a rare, neurodegenerative disease that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. It causes progressive physiological, psychiatric and cognitive disorders. HD is caused by an abnormal expansion of the CAG trinucleotide repeat on the HTT gene located at chromosome 4.
Mechanism of Toxicity of Huntingtin (HTT) gene
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31940909/
Mechanism of Toxicity of Huntingtin (HTT) gene
Featured ProductsHTT
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of both the upper and lower motor neurons. The disease causes gradual weakening and atrophy of the limbs, trunk, chest, and abdominal muscles. It affects movement, communication, swallowing, and breathing eventually leading to death. Mutations in the SOD1 gene have been found to be associated with familial ALS and is thought to be a leading genetic factor in the progression of the disease.
ALS disease pathology and proposed disease mechanisms
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28468939/
ALS disease pathology and proposed disease mechanisms
Featured ProductsSOD1TDP-43
Multiple sclerosis (MS)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune-mediated neurodegenerative disease characterized by inflammatory demyelination of nerves in the central nervous system. Various studies have emphasized the role of B cells and the autoantibodies they produce in the pathogenesis of MS. Pharmaceutical companies such as Roche and Novartis have developed a variety of CD20 antibody drugs specifically targeting B cells to treat multiple sclerosis.
The roles of immune cells in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24740824/
The roles of immune cells in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis
Featured ProductsCD19CD20CD52IFNAR1TGA4
Brain Tumors
Brain tumors can be subdivided into different tumor types, commonly including gliomas, meningiomas, gliomas, medulloblastomas, etc.
The treatment for a brain tumor will depend on many things, including the type, size and location of the tumor, as well as symptoms, general health and treatment preferences. Targeted drug therapy is one of the main treatment options for a brain tumor.
Different categories of brain tumors
https://brainmadesimple.com/brain-tumor-cancer/
Different categories of brain tumors
Featured ProductsCD117CSFEGFREphA2PDGFVEGFTOP

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PFFs, A Novel Approach to Modeling Neurodegeneration
Products for Diagnostic Research
MoleculeCat. No.SpeciesProduct Description
APP/A betaAPP-H51H8HumanHuman APP / Abeta38 Protein, His Tag
APP-H51H7HumanHuman APP / Abeta40 Protein, His Tag
APP-H51H6HumanHuman APP / Abeta42 Protein, His Tag
Alpha-synucleinALN-H52H8HumanHuman Alpha-Synuclein Protein, His Tag
ALN-H82H8HumanBiotinylated Human Alpha-Synuclein Protein, His,Avitag™
GFAPGFP-H5143HumanHuman GFAP Protein, His Tag
GFP-M5148MouseMouse GFAP Protein, His Tag
Neuron Specific Enolase(NSE)NSE-H5144HumanHuman NSE Protein, His Tag
Neurofilament Light (NfL)NFL-H5143HumanHuman NFL Protein, His Tag
Neurofilament Heavy (NfH)NFH-H5544HumanHuman NFH Protein, His Tag
S100BS1B-H5143HumanHuman S100B Protein, His Tag
TauTAU-H51H3HumanHuman Tau-441 / 2N4R Protein, His Tag
TAU-H51H5HumanHuman Tau-441 / 2N4R (273-380) Protein, His Tag (MALS verified)
TAU-H51H4HumanHuman Tau-441 / 2N4R (241-380) Protein, His Tag (MALS verified)
Verification Data

High purity verified by SDS-PAGE and SEC-MALS

TAU-H51H5 (SDS-PAGE&MALS)

The purity of Human Tau-441 (273-380), His Tag (Cat. No. TAU-H51H5) is greater than 95% verified by SDS-PAGE, and more than 90% verified by SEC-MALS.

BA1-H5220 (SDS-PAGE&MALS)

The purity of Human BACE-1, His Tag (Cat. No. BA1-H5220) is greater than 95% verified by SDS-PAGE,and more than 95% verified by SEC-MALS.

High bioactivity verified by ELISA

TREM2-ELISA

Immobilized Human TREM2, His, Tag (Cat. No. TR2-H52H5) at 1 μg/mL (100 μL/well) can bind Anti-TREM2 Antibody, Human IgG1 with a linear range of 0.3-2 ng/mL (QC tested).

TREM2-ELISA

Immobilized Human TREM2, Fc Tag (Cat. No. TR2-H5254) at 1 μg/mL (100 μL/well) can bind Anti-TREM2 Antibody, Human IgG1 with a linear range of 1-20 ng/mL (QC tested).

CD0-H82E5 (ELISA)

Immobilized Ritux*mab at 2 μg/mL (100 μL/well) can bind Biotinylated Human CD20 Full Length, His,Avitag (HEK293) (Cat. No. CD0-H82E5) with a linear range of 4-63 ng/mL (in presence of DDM and CHS) (QC tested).

IT7-H52W4 (ELISA)

Immobilized anti-alpha4 unit,Human IgG4, kappa LC at 1 μg/mL (100 μL/well) can bind Human ITGA4&ITGB7 Heterodimer Protein, His Tag&Tag Free (Cat. No. IT7-H52W4) with a linear range of 8-31 ng/mL (QC tested).

High affinity verified by SPR

TREM2-SPR

Anti-TREM2 antibody captured on CM5 chip via Anti-human IgG Fc antibodies surface can bind Human TREM2, His Tag (Cat. No. TR2-H52H5) with an affinity constant of 95.9 nM as determined in a SPR assay (Biacore 8K)

CD0-H82E5(SPR)

Biotinylated Human CD20, His,Avitag (HEK293) (Cat. No. CD0-H82E5) captured on Biotin CAP-Series S Sensor Chip can bind Ritux*mab with an affinity constant of 1.73 nM as determined in a SPR assay (in presence of DDM and CHS) (Biacore T200) (Routinely tested).

High affinity verified by BLI

TREM2-BLI

Loaded Human TREM2, Fc Tag (Cat. No. TR2-H5254) on Protein A Biosensor, can bind Human Apolipoprotein E, His Tag (Cat. No. APE-H5246) with an affinity constant of 106 nM as determined in BLI assay (ForteBio Octet Red96e).

TREM2-BLI

Loaded Human TREM2, Fc Tag (Cat. No. TR2-H5254) on Protein A Biosensor, can bind Human Apolipoprotein E (R154S,R176C), His Tag (Cat. No. APE-H5256) with an affinity constant of 17.2 nM as determined in BLI assay (ForteBio Octet Red96e).

CD0-H82E5(BLI)

Loaded Biotinylated Human CD20 Full Length, His,Avitag (HEK293) (Cat. No. CD0-H82E5) on SA Biosensor, can bind Ritux*mab with an affinity constant of 0.247 nM as determined in BLI assay (ForteBio Octet Red96e) (Routinely tested).

ELISA

Loaded Human IFNAR1, His Tag (Cat. No. IF1-H5225) on NTA Biosensor, can bind Human IFN-alpha 2b (K46R), Fc Tag (Cat. No. IFB-H5253) with an affinity constant of 0.689 μM as determined in BLI assay (ForteBio Octet Red96e) (QC tested).

Related Reading

>>> Three hypotheses on the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease

>>> The second most common neurodegenerative disease: Parkinson's disease

>>> Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Pathology, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Drugs

>>> Multiple Sclerosis: Etiology, Pathology, Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Drugs

>>> Classical, Potential, and Innovative Therapeutic Strategies for Brain Tumors

References
  • 1. Myasnikov, A., H. Zhu, P. Hixson, B. Xie, K. Yu, A. Pitre, J. Peng and J. Sun (2021). "Structural analysis of the full-length human LRRK2." Cell 184(13): 3519-3527 e3510.

  • 2. Knopman, D. S., H. Amieva, R. C. Petersen, G. Chetelat, D. M. Holtzman, B. T. Hyman, R. A. Nixon and D. T. Jones (2021). "Alzheimer disease." Nat Rev Dis Primers 7(1): 33.

  • 3. Bloem, B. R., M. S. Okun and C. Klein (2021). "Parkinson's disease."  Lancet 397(10291): 2284-2303.

  • 4. Tabrizi, S. J., M. D. Flower, C. A. Ross and E. J. Wild (2020). "Huntington disease: new insights into molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic opportunities." Nat Rev Neurol 16(10): 529-546.

  • 5. Reich, D. S., C. F. Lucchinetti and P. A. Calabresi (2018). "Multiple Sclerosis." N Engl J Med 378(2): 169-180.

  • 6. Pan, X., Z. Li, Q. Zhou, H. Shen, K. Wu, X. Huang, J. Chen, J. Zhang, X. Zhu, J. Lei, W. Xiong, H. Gong, B. Xiao and N. Yan (2018). "Structure of the human voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4 in complex with beta1." Science 362(6412): eaau2486.

  • 7. Lapointe, S., A. Perry and N. A. Butowski (2018). "Primary brain tumours in adults." Lancet 392(10145): 432-446.

  • 8. Brown, R. H. and A. Al-Chalabi (2017). "Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis." N Engl J Med 377(2): 162-172.

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